I’m not a big fan of embedding YouTube videos, it adds a lot of weight to the page and I have limited control over it. It pulls in all kinds of styles, scripts and fonts from multiple domains. YouTube has a nocookie embed option, which is suppose to be privacy-friendly, but who knows.

So if not YouTube — what then? Vimeo is one option, it costs a few coffees per month. But it has some of the same problems as YouTube, as it also uses an iframe.

So I tried some other solutions.

Table of contents
This going to be a quick rundown of the video solutions I tried for this site. I’m not going into details here.


For all my solutions I used Video.js. To conditionally load it I added the following to the head partial:

{{- if .HasShortcode "video" -}}
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="{{ (resources.Get "assets/video-js.min.css" | fingerprint).Permalink }}" />
  <link rel="preconnect" href="{{ $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl }}" crossorigin>
  <link rel="dns-prefetch" href="{{ $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl }}">
{{ end -}}
This also prefetches and preconnects to the video base URL, defined by the Hugo configuration key Params.Video.fileBaseUrl.

And to my footer partial:

{{- if .HasShortcode "video" -}}
  <script src="{{ (resources.Get "assets/video.min.js" | fingerprint).Permalink }}"></script>
{{ end -}}

FFmpeg and S3

First I tried encoding the HLS streams using FFmpeg, and uploading them to S3. There are multiple ways of serving content from S3, I used a Bunny.net pull zone.

I found a nice guide, and script on Peer5. That would have taken me a long time to figure out, so thanks Peer5 🙂

The script didn’t create thumbnails, so I added it:


# make thumb(s)
thumb_w="$(echo ${thumbnail} | cut -d 'x' -f 1)"
thumb_h="$(echo ${thumbnail} | cut -d 'x' -f 2)"
ffmpeg -i ${source} -vf "fps=1/10,scale=w=${thumb_w}:h=${thumb_h}:force_original_aspect_ratio=decrease" ${target}/thumbnail_%03d.jpg -y

Next I made a shortcode to insert the video object:

{{- $src := .Get "src" -}}
{{- $thumb := default 1 (.Get "thumb") -}}
{{- $title := default $src (.Get "title") -}}
{{- $description := (.Get "description") -}}
{{- $video := index $.Site.Data.videos $src -}}

{{- $poster := printf "%s%s/thumbnail_%03d.jpg" $.Site.Params.Video.thumbBaseUrl $src $thumb -}}
{{- $playlist := printf "%s%s/playlist.m3u8" $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl $src -}}

{{- with $video -}}
  <video class="video-js vjs-16-9" controls preload="none" width="{{.width}}" height="{{.height}}" poster="{{$poster}}" data-setup="{}">
    <source type="application/x-mpegURL" src="{{ $playlist }}">
  {{- with $description -}}
    <script type="application/ld+json">
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "VideoObject",
      "name": {{ $title }},
      "description": {{- $description -}},
      "thumbnailUrl": [ {{ $poster }} ],
      "uploadDate": {{ $video.modified }},
      "duration": {{ $video.duration }},
      "contentUrl": {{ $playlist }}
  {{- end -}}
{{- else -}}
  {{ errorf "Missing data value for video: %s" $src }}
{{- end -}}

It also pulls some video information from data/videos.yml:

  width: 1920
  height: 1080
  bitrate: 15.05
  framerate: 30.00
  duration: PT00M42S
  aspect_ratio: 16:9
  modified: 2021-03-10

To build this data file I made a bash script that iterated all master video files and fetched data using MediaInfo:


masters=`find _master -type f`

for master in $masters; do
    echo $(echo $master | sed 's/_master\///'):

    videoInfo=`mediainfo --Inform="Video;%Width%,%Height%,%BitRate%,%FrameRate%,%Duration%,%DisplayAspectRatio/String%" $master`

    width=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 1`
    echo "  width: $width"

    height=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 2`
    echo "  height: $height"

    bitrate=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 3`
    bitrate=`echo $bitrate / 1000 / 1000 | bc -l`
    bitrate=`printf %.2f $bitrate`
    echo "  bitrate: $bitrate"

    framerate=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 4`
    framerate=`printf %.2f $framerate`
    echo "  framerate: $framerate"

    duration=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 5`
    duration=`echo $duration/1000 | bc`
    duration=`date -d@$duration -u +PT%MM%SS`
    echo "  duration: $duration"

    aspect_ratio=`echo $videoInfo | cut -d , -f 6`
    echo "  aspect_ratio: $aspect_ratio"

    modified=`stat -c %y $master | cut -d " " -f 1`
    echo "  modified: $modified"


It worked, but I wasn’t confident about the encoding script… And I didn’t want to spend too much time figuring out best practises for encoding HLS for the web.

Bunny Stream

Next I tried Bunny Stream.

Bunny Stream solves the hassle of video delivery by packing transcoding, storage, security & a video player into a simple, but powerful package.

It’s a nice solution, where you just upload the video and they take care of the rest.

So I had to rewrite the shortcode:

{{- $id := .Get "id" -}}
{{- $title := .Get "title" -}}
{{- $description := .Get "description" -}}

{{- $video := getJSON "http://bunny-api-gateway:8080" (printf "/videos/%s" $id) -}}

{{- $poster := printf "%s%s/%s" $.Site.Params.Video.thumbBaseUrl $id $video.thumbnailFileName -}}
{{- $playlist := printf "%s%s/playlist.m3u8" $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl $id -}}
{{- $fallback := printf "%s%s/play_720p.mp4" $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl $id -}}

{{- with $video -}}
  <video class="video-js vjs-16-9" controls preload="none" width="{{.width}}" height="{{.height}}" poster="{{$poster}}" data-setup="{}">
    <source src="{{ $playlist }}" type="application/x-mpegURL">
    <source src="{{ $fallback }}" type="video/mp4">
  {{- with $description -}}
    <script type="application/ld+json">
      "@context": "https://schema.org",
      "@type": "VideoObject",
      "name": {{ $title | default $video.title }},
      "description": {{ $description }},
      "thumbnailUrl": [ {{ $poster }} ],
      "uploadDate": {{ $video.dateUploaded }},
      "duration": {{ $video.custom.duration }},
      "contentUrl": {{ $playlist }}
  {{- end -}}
{{- else -}}
  {{ errorf "Missing data for video: %s" $id }}
{{- end -}}

Instead of the data file videos.yml I got the video information from the Bunny Stream API. But the API requires authentication, and Hugo getJSON doesn’t support that. So I made a simple “API-gateway” in Python:

from flask import Flask, jsonify
import requests
import time

app = Flask(__name__)

class InvalidUsage(Exception):
    status_code = 400

    def __init__(self, message, status_code=None, payload=None):
        self.message = message
        if status_code is not None:
            self.status_code = status_code
        self.payload = payload

    def to_dict(self):
        rv = dict(self.payload or ())
        rv['message'] = self.message
        return rv

def handle_invalid_usage(error):
    response = jsonify(error.to_dict())
    response.status_code = error.status_code
    return response

def resource_not_found(e):
    return jsonify(error=str(e)), 404

def get_video(id):
    url = 'http://video.bunnycdn.com/library/xxxx/videos/' + id
    headers = {'AccessKey': 'xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx'}

    r = requests.get(url, headers=headers)

    json = r.json()

    json['custom'] = {
        'duration': time.strftime('PT%HH%MM%SS', time.gmtime(json['length']))

    return json

def return_video_data(videoid):
        return get_video(videoid)
        raise InvalidUsage('Something bad happened', status_code=400)

It simply forwards queries for /videos/ to the Bunny Stream API, with added authentication. I did add a custom duration field — where the length in seconds, from the API, was converted to ISO 8601 duration.

This also worked well, but I wanted a more hands on solution — so I went searching for another solution again 🙂

Coconut.co and S3

I really liked my first solution — where I had access to, and control over, the video files. That makes a really portable solution, where it’s very easy to switch hosting service. Or even re-encode the videos, if I ever want to do that.

But I didn’t like having to encode the videos myself… I have no intention of knowing best practices for encoding video for web delivery.

So instead I opted to use an encoding service: Coconut.co

The simplest video encoding service and API since 2006. With the power of aws.

Nice! 😎

I like their API and easy to use libraries. So I made a simple python script to create encoding jobs:

import coconut
import sys
import uuid
import hashlib
import json
import datetime
import urllib.parse

uuid = str(uuid.uuid4())
coconut.api_key = 'k-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx'

coconut.notification = {
  'type': 'http',
  'url': 'https://app.coconut.co/tools/webhooks/xxxxxxxx/xxxxxxxxx'

coconut.storage = {
  'service': 's3',
  'bucket': 'xxxxxxxxxxxxxx',
  'region': 'xxxxxxxxxxxx',
  'credentials': {
    'access_key_id': 'xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx',
    'secret_access_key': 'xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx'
  'path': '/video/{}'.format(uuid),
  'acl': 'private',
  'cache_control': urllib.parse.quote('public, s-maxage=31536000, max-age=7776000')

master_video = sys.argv[1]

sha256_hash = hashlib.sha256()

with open(master_video,"rb") as f:
    # Read and update hash string value in blocks of 4K
    for byte_block in iter(lambda: f.read(4096),b""):
    file_hash = sha256_hash.hexdigest()

videos = []

with open('videos.json') as json_file:
    videos = json.load(json_file)
    for v in videos:
        if v['sha256'] == file_hash:
            print('Found: ' + v['path'])

    'path': master_video,
    'sha256': file_hash,
    'uuid': uuid,
    'datetime': datetime.datetime.now().isoformat()

with open('videos.json', 'w') as outfile:
    json.dump(videos, outfile, indent=4)

job = coconut.Job.create(
    "input": {
      "service": "s3",
      "credentials": {
        "access_key_id": "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx",
        "secret_access_key": "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"
      "bucket": "cavelab-static",
      "key": master_video.replace('video/', '/video_master/'),
      "region": "eu-central-1"
    'outputs': {
      'jpg:720p': {
          'path': '/thumbnail_%.2d.jpg',
          "number": 10
      'mp4:720p': {
          'path': '/play_720p.mp4'
      'httpstream': {
        'hls': {
            'path': '/hls/'


The file to be encoded is provided as an argument:

$ python3 create.py video/homelab/file-server/blinkenlights.mp4

It assumes that the video file is available under the /video_master folder on the input S3 bucket.

Here is what the script does:

  • Read the SHA256 checksum of the master video file
    • Checks if this already exists in videos.json, if it does; this video has already been encoded and the script ends
  • Adds the video to videos.json:
    • File path
    • SHA256 checksum
    • Video ID, a generated UUID
    • Date and time
  • Kicks off an encoding job with Coconut, which uploads to a S3 bucket:
    • 10 thumbnails in 720p
    • MP4 fallback file in 720p
    • HLS video stream

Sample entry in videos.json:

    "path": "video/homelab/file-server/blinkenlights.mp4",
    "sha256": "06864337eda17fc97bad715a636cba490687d45c14addf2f4102ae3e2cc5bb69",
    "uuid": "e5cccbee-4f39-4504-ae39-b6c134a24bac",
    "datetime": "2021-05-03T20:24:36.824282"

And the shortcode:

{{- $id := .Get "id" -}}
{{- $thumb := default 5 (.Get "thumb") -}}

{{- $poster := printf "%s%s/thumbnail_%02d.jpg" $.Site.Params.Video.thumbBaseUrl $id $thumb -}}
{{- $playlist := printf "%s%s/hls/master.m3u8" $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl $id -}}
{{- $fallback := printf "%s%s/play_720p.mp4" $.Site.Params.Video.fileBaseUrl $id -}}

<video class="video-js vjs-16-9" controls preload="none" width="1920" height="1080" poster="{{$poster}}" data-setup="{}" crossorigin="anonymous">
  <source src="{{ $playlist }}" type="application/x-mpegURL">
  <source src="{{ $fallback }}" type="video/mp4">

I didn’t bother with the VideoObject structured data this time, I might add it in the future.

Currently I am serving the videos using a Bunny.net pull zone. But having the files in S3 means I am free to serve them with whatever service I choose 🙂

Using the shortcode

{{< video id="e5cccbee-4f39-4504-ae39-b6c134a24bac" >}}

Now I just need to migrate all my YouTube embeds. I’ll get to that — some day 😉